Scientific Article
ISSN 1678-2305 online version
Carvalho et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(2): e448. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.2.448 1/10
This research aimed to test the catching of ornamental invertebrates in artificial collectors,
comparing different types of collectors (vertical and horizontal), deployment period (seasons) and
time of immersion (1 to 8 months). The experiments were carried out in an area of mussel farming
in Caraguatatuba, southeastern Brazil. Collectors were made of braided nets, both measuring
1 m. Batches of 32 collectors were deployed into the sea at Winter and Spring 2011 and Summer
and Autumn 2012. Half of collectors were positioned horizontally at the surface of the sea and
the others were positioned vertically, both tied to a floating structure 50 m long. Monthly, two
vertical and two horizontal collectors were removed from each batch and examined for detecting
ornamentals. Two species were caught: the anemone Bunodosoma caissarumm and the polychaete
Branchiomma luctuosum. Occurrence of anemones was significantly higher in horizontal collectors
and lower in collectors deployed during summer. Occurrence was also higher after two to five
months of immersion. Polychaete occurrence was significantly higher in vertical collectors deployed
during Autumn, being higher after seven months of immersion. We concluded that the system was
technically feasible, but an economical evaluation must be done in further studies.
Key words: Bunodossoma caissarum; Branchiomma luctuosum; aquarium trade; mariculture;
Este trabalho teve como objetivo testar a captura de invertebrados ornamentais em coletores
artificiais, comparando diferentes tipos de coletores (verticais e horizontais), período de
implantação (estações) e tempos de imersão (1 a 8 meses). Os experimentos foram realizados
em uma área de cultivo de mexilhões em Caraguatatuba, sudeste do Brasil. Os coletores foram
feitos de redes trançadas, ambos medindo um metro de comprimento. Lotes de 32 coletores
foram implantados no mar no inverno e primavera de 2011 e verão e outono de 2012. Metade
dos coletores foram posicionados horizontalmente na superfície do mar e os outros foram
posicionados verticalmente, ambos amarrados a uma estrutura flutuante de 50 m de comprimento.
Mensalmente, dois coletores verticais e dois coletores horizontais foram removidos de cada lote
e examinados para a detecção de invertebrados ornamentais. Duas espécies foram capturadas:
a anêmona Bunodosoma caissarumm e o poliqueta Branchiomma luctuosum. A ocorrência
de anêmonas foi significativamente maior nos coletores horizontais e menor nos coletores
implantados no verão. A ocorrência também foi maior após dois e até cinco meses de imersão.
A ocorrência de poliquetas foi significativamente maior nos coletores verticais implantados no
outono, sendo maior após sete meses de imersão. Concluímos que o sistema foi tecnicamente
viável, mas uma avaliação econômica deve ser feita em estudos posteriores.
Palavras-chave: Bunodossoma caissarum; Branchiomma luctuosum; aquarismo; maricultura;
Leina Moura Carneiro Carvalho
Alexander Turra
Jose Luis Alves
Helcio Luis de Almeida Marques
Universidade de São Paulo – USP, Museu de Zoologia,
Av. Nazaré, 481, CEP 04263-000, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
E-mail: (corresponding
Universidade de São Paulo – USP, Instituto Oceanográfico,
Praça do Oceanográico, 191, CEP 05508-120, São
Paulo, SP, Brasil.
Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios –
APTA, Instituto de Pesca, Av. Francisco Matarazzo,
455, CEP 05001-970, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
*FAPESP (Process: 2011/51286-6).
Received: September 24, 2018
Approved: January 02, 2019
Carvalho et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(2): e448. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.2.448 2/10
The global trade of marine species for ornamental proposes has
grown significantly in recent decades resulting in a multi‑million
dollars market (Hardin and Legore, 2005). Besides fish, the aquarium
trade involves a wide range of invertebrates (Rhyne et al., 2009;
Olivotto et al., 2011). The estimated number of invertebrates is
over 500 (excluding corals) although there is taxonomic uncertainty
(Wabnitz et al., 2003). Among them, there is a variety of sessile
species, including anemones (Olivotto et al., 2011) and polychaetes
from the Sabellidae and Serpulidae families (Capa et al., 2010).
Freshwater ornamental trade produces over 90% of organisms
in captivity whereas the majority of marine ornamental species
are stocked from wild‑caught (Wabnitz et al., 2003). The increase
and intense capture of marine organisms to support this demand
has led to a growing concern due to the potential environmental
damage (mainly coral reefs) (Olivotto et al., 2011). This scenario
is even more alarming if takes into account the pressures that these
environments already face from local sources of pollution and
global climate change (Hoegh‑Guldberg et al., 2007). In addition,
less conscientious traders continue to support the use of destructive
fishing techniques, such as the use of cyanide, to anesthetize
highly priced fish species, which has caused deleterious effects in
non‑target species as several marine invertebrates (Mak et al., 2005)
The artificial culture of marine ornamental organisms is one of
the solutions aimed to reduce the pressure on natural environments.
However, further studies are still required concerning the biology
of species and their reproduction in captivity (Pomeroy et al.,
2008). On the other hand, some companies have been developing
methods for a more sustainable sourcing of ornamental species,
one of those methods, known as Post‑larvae Capture and Culture
(PCC), consists of the capture of planktonic larvae and post‑larvae
by using light traps and nets allowing their subsequent culture in
captivity (ECOCEAN, 2015).
The capture of organisms from the planktonic environment
is also being considered in mariculture of mussels, oysters, and
scallops where both hard‑shells of organisms and artificial substrata
increase the area available to settlement of planktonic larvae;
these structures also allow the migration juvenile and adults from
neighbouring areas (Baine, 2001). The settlement and colonization
rate, defined as the rate at which planktonic larvae of benthic
organisms establish permanent contact on a substrate depends on
a series of complex events, such as different spatial and temporal
scales, and physical, chemical and biological processes. The size
of the cultivated organism and substratum characteristics also
determines the number of potential settlements (Menge, 2000).
To the best of our knowledge, the capture of ornamental
invertebrates in artificial collectors, as those used in mariculture,
has not been tested yet. However, preliminary observations
provided indications that this is feasible. (Helcio Marques
personal communication) recorded groups of organisms with
ornamental value settled in Perna perna mussel growing ropes
at Cocanha Beach, Caraguatatuba, SP, Southeastern Brazil.
Personal observations also recorded the settlement of ornamental
species in mussel seed artificial collectors in the same place,
such as anemones Bunodosoma caissarumm (Corrêa, 1987) of
the Actiniidae family and polychaetes Branchiomma luctuosum
(Grube, 1869) of the Sabellidae family.
The anemone B. caissarumm is endemic from Brazil occurring
in high densities in the calm waters of bays and associated with
bedrocks (Scremin et al., 2013). The distribution is widespread
around the coast from southern Brazil until Fernando de Noronha
and São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (Gouvea et al., 1989;
Scremin et al., 2013). The polychaete B. luctuosum, usually occurs
in different marine environments, from intertidal zones to deep‑sea
areas (El Haddad et al., 2008; Licciano et al., 2007). This specie
was originally described to the Red Sea as Sabella (Dasychone)
luctuosa and in the 80s it was first recorded in the Mediterranean.
Since then, it has been recorded in various regions of the world
(El Haddad et al., 2008; Licciano et al., 2002).
The objective of this study was to test a method to capture
B. caissarumm and B. luctuosum using artificial mussel seed
collectors. Thus, the number of organisms settled was determined
in different types of collectors (vertical or horizontal), periods
of the deployment of collectors into the sea (seasons of the year)
and time of immersion (1‑8 months), aiming to develop strategies
that may foster the sustainable commercial exploitation of this
Study area
The experiment was conducted from August 2011 to January
2013 in a mussel farm located in an aquaculture area used by
MAPEC (Association of Fishermen and Mussel‑farmers of
Cocanha Beach) in the municipality of Caraguatatuba, on the
northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil (23º34’57”S and 45º18’35”W).
This area is protected from southern undulations and strong
southeastern winds due to a geographical barrier formed by São
Sebastião Island, and more locally by the presence of Cocanha
Island. The local depth, measured during low and high tides is
about 5 m. The bottom is predominantly sandy‑muddy with a
small presence of consolidated substrate.
Oceanographic variables
Water temperature (thermometer mercury column), salinity
(refractometer hydrometer‑field) and turbidity (Secchi disk)
were monitored weekly during the whole experiment. Levels of
chlorophyll‑a and total suspended solids (particulate organic matter,
POM; and particulate inorganic matter, PIM) were determined
fortnightly in water samples collected from the sites of cultivation,
about 50 cm deep, using the methods described in APHA (2005).
For statistical analysis, the monthly averages were used.
Experimental design
Batches of 32 collectors were deployed into the sea at different
times: August/2011 (winter), November/2011 (spring), February/2012
(summer) and May/2012 (autumn). Sixteen of these collectors were
positioned horizontally on the surface of the sea at the air‑water
interface, where there are greater attachments of mussel seeds
(Bordon et al., 2011). the other 16 collectors were positioned
vertically underneath the water surface (Figure 1).