Can fish oil incorporation in diet improve the growth performance of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus?

  • Eduardo Gomes SANCHES Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do Litoral Norte, Instituto de Pesca/APTA/SAA
  • Francisco da Costa SILVA Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do Litoral Norte, Instituto de Pesca/APTA/SAA
  • Jonas Rodrigues LEITE Programa de Pós Graduação em Oceanografia Ambiental na Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (PPGOAm – UFES)
  • Pedro Kerber Azevedo SILVA Redemar Alevinos
  • Claudia Ehlers KERBER Redemar Alevinos
  • Pedro Antônio dos SANTOS Redemar Alevinos


This study evaluated the growth performance of dusky grouper fed with different fish oil proportion incorporated in a commercial diet (CD) with 8.8% Crude Lipid (CL). Diet 1 = CD with 0% oil; diet 2 = CD with 4% oil; and diet 3 = CD with 8.8% oil. Ninety fishes with 29.2 ± 1.3 g and 12.2 ± 0.7 cm were divided in nine 40 gal tanks, with ten fishes in each tank, three replicates to each diet, along 90 days. Water parameters (temperature, oxygen level, total ammonia and salinity) were maintained at specific ranges for the species. The 4% fish oil incorporation on dusky grouper diet provides better performance results comparing with fish feeds with distinct energetic levels.


ABDULLAH, M.S.; WUAN, T.O.; KAWAHARA, S.1987 Preliminary studies in stocking density and production of hamoor Epinephelus tauvina in PVC-lined raceways. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 18(4): 126-132.

Culture and economics of wild grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using three feed types in ponds. Aquaculture, 201: 229-240.

BOTERO, J.Y. e OSPINA, J.F. 2003 Crecimiento y desempeño general de juveniles silvestres de Epinephelus itajara in condiciones de cultivo. Boletim Investigaciones Marinhas Costeiras, 32: 25-36.

BOWYER, J.N.; QIN, J.G.; STONE, D.A.J. 2013 Protein, lipid and energy requirements of
cultured marine fish in cold, temperate and warm water. Reviews in Aquaculture, 5: 10-32.

CHOU, R.L.; SU, M.S.; CHEN, H.Y. 2001 Optimal dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Aquaculture, 193: 81-89.

ELLIS, S.C. e REIGH, R.C. 1991 Effects of dietary lipid and carbohydrate levels on the growth and body composition of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellstus. Aquaculture, 97: 383-394.

FABREGAT, T.H.P.; PEREIRA, T.S.; BOSCOLO, C.N.; ALVARADO, J.D.; FERNANDES, J.B. 2011 Substituição da farinha de peixe pelo farelo de soja em dietas para juvenis de curimba. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 37: 289-294.

GRACIA LÓPEZ, V. e CASTELLÓ-ORVAY, F. 2003 Preliminary data on the culture of juveniles of the dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834). Hidrobiológica, 13(4): 321-327.

KAUSHIK, S.J.; COVES, D.; DUTTO, G.; BLANC, D. 2004 Almost total replacement of fish meal by plant protein sources in the diet of marine teleost, the European seabass Dicentranchus labrax. Aquaculture, 230: 391-404.

KERBER, C.E.; AZEVEDO SILVA, H.K.; SANTOS,P.A.; SANCHES. E.G. 2012 Reproduction and larviculture of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) in Brazil. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, 2: 229-234.

LIN, Y.H. e SHIAU, S.Y. 2003 Dietary lipid requirement of grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, and effects on immune responses. Aquaculture,225: 243-250.

LIN, H.Z.; LIU, Y.J.; HE, J.G.; ZHENG, W.H.; TIAN,L.X. 2007 Alternative vegetable lipid sources in diets for grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton):effects on growth and muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Aquaculture Research, 38: 1605-1611.

LUO, Z.; LIU, Y.; MAI, K.; TIAN, L. 2005 Advances in the study on nutrient requirements of Grouper (Epinephelus sp.): a Review. Journal of Ocean University of China, 4(2): 93-98.

MACHADO, L.F.; DAROS, F.A.M.L.; BERTONCINI,A.A.; HOSTIM-SILVA, M.; BARREIROS, J.P. 2008 Feeding strategy and trophic ontogeny in Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae) from Southern Brazil. Cybium, 32(1): 33-41.

MIHELAKAKIS, A.; TSOLKAS, C.; YOSHIMATSU, T. 2002 Optimization of feeding rate of hatcheryproduced juvenile gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 33:169-175.

NUNES, A.J.P.; PINTO, R.C.C.; SÁ, M.V.C. 2011 Labomar study defines optimal dietary lipid, energy content for fat snook. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 78: 74-75.

RACHMANSYAH, U.; PALINGGI, N.N.;WILLIAMS, K. 2009 Formulated feed for tiger
grouper grow-out. Aquaculture Asia Magazine,4(3): 30-35.

Crescimento de juvenis da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus submetidos a diferentes dietas. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 38(1): 81-88.

RODRIGUES FILHO, J.A.; SANCHES, E.G.; GARCIA, C.E.O.; PANNUTI, C.V.; SEBASTIANI, E.F.; MOREIRA, R.G. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Epinephelus
marginatus (Lowe, 1834) (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) Environmental Biology of Fishes, 85: 301–302.

SANCHES, E.G.; AZEVEDO, V.G.; COSTA, M.R. 2007 Criação da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) (Teleostei, Serranidae)alimentada com rejeito de pesca e ração úmida em tanques-rede. Atlântica, 29(2): 121-126.

SANCHES, E.G.; OLIVEIRA, I.R.; SERRALHEIRO,P.C.S. 2009 Crioconservação do sêmen da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) (Teleostei, Serranidae). Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 35(3): 389 - 399.

SHIAU, S.Y. e LAN, C.W. 1996 Optimum dietary protein level and protein to energy ratio for growth of grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus).Aquaculture, 145: 259-266.

SIM, S.Y.; RIMMER, M.; WILLIAMS, K.; TOLEDO,J.D.; SUGAMA, K.; RUMEGAN, I.; WILLIAMS, K.C.; PHILLIPS, M.J. 2005 A pratical guide to feeds and feed management for cultured groupers. Bangkok: NACA. 18p.

SUWIRYA, K. e GIRI, N.A. 2005 Feed development and application for juvenile grouper. Aquaculture Asia Magazine, 45: 34-35.

THOMAN, E.S.; DAVIS, D.A.; ARNOLD, C.R. 1999 Evaluation of growout diets with varying protein and energy levels for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture, 176: 343-353.

TUAN, L.A. e WILLIAMS, K.C. 2007 Optimum dietary protein and lipid specifications for juvenile malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus). Aquaculture, 267: 129-138.

USMAN, R.; LAINING, A.; AHMAD, T.; WILLIAMS, K.C. 2005 Optimum dietary protein
and lipid specifications for grow-out of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis
(Valenciennes). Aquaculture Research, 36: 1285- 1292.

WANG, J.T.; LIU, Y.J.; TIAN, L.X.; MAI, K.S.; DU,Z.Y.; WANG, Y.; YANG, H.J. 2005 Effects of
dietary lipid level on growth performance, lipid deposition, hepatic lipogenesis in juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Aquaculture, 249: 439-447.

WATANABE, T. 2002 Strategies for further development of aquatic feeds. Fisheries Science, 68: 242-252.

WILLIAMS, K.C. 2009 A review of feeding practices and nutritional requirements of postlarval groupers. Aquaculture, 292: 141–152.

WILLIAMS, K.C.; IRVIN, S.; BARDAY, M. 2004 Polka dot grouper Cromileptes altivelis fingerlings require high protein and moderate lipid diets for optimal growth and nutrient retention. Aquaculture Nutrition, 10: 125-134.
How to Cite
SANCHES, Eduardo Gomes et al. Can fish oil incorporation in diet improve the growth performance of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus?. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, [S.l.], v. 40, n. 2, p. 147-155, nov. 2018. ISSN 1678-2305. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 26 june 2022.