Antinutritional factors of raw soybean on growth and haematological responses of nile tilapia


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of anti-nutritional factors of RSB (raw soybean) on hematology and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The replacement was made in the levels of 0.0, 15.0, 25.0 and 35.0% of the protein in soybean meal (SBM) by the crude soy protein. In this study, the effect of replacing SBM by RSB on hematological profile and growth performance of Nile tilapia were evaluated after 90 days of feeding. Urea activity was evaluated of RSB which indicated the presence of anti-nutritional factors. The hematological parameters (erythrogram and white blood cell) were evaluated. The parameters of growth performance were also evaluated. RSB affected the weight gain, feed intake and protein retention. Additionally, an increase of neutrophil count and a decrease of albumin concentration were observed. RSB inclusion in the Nile tilapia diet changed the white blood cell number and negatively affected growth development. However, no effect on erythrogram was observed in this study. We can conclude that although the anti-nutritional factors present in RSB has interfered in the growth performance, it is recommended to use the replacement level of RSB below 35%, as it does not affect fish health.


AJALA, O.O.; OWOYEMI A.O.; AINA, O.O. 2015 Hematological and histological features of the
testis and liver of male African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed ration supplemented with
Vernonia amygdalina Del. Philippine Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 41(2): 92-100.

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist). 2000 Official methods of analysis. 12th edition.
Washington, D. C, p.1219.

A.O.C.S. 1980 Urease Activity. Official Method Ba. American Oil Chemists Society, Champagne,Ill, p. 9-58.

ARABA, M.; DALE, N.M. 1990 Evaluation of KOH solubility as an indicator of over-processing of
soybean meal. Poultry Sicence, 69(1): 76-83.

BARBIERI, E.; BONDIOLI, A.C.V. 2015 Acute toxicity of ammonia in Pacu fish (Piaractus
mesopotamicus , Holmberg, 1887) at different temperatures levels. Aquaculture Research, 46(3):

BARBIERI, E.; FERREIRA, L.A.A. 2011 Effects of the Organophosphate Pesticide Folidol 600® on
the Freshwater Fish, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology,
99(3): 209-214.

BARROS, M.M.; RANZANI-PAIVA, M.J.T.; PEZZATO, L.E.; FALCON, D.R.; GUIMARÃES, I.G. 2009 Hematological response and growth performance of Nile tilapia fed diets containing folic acid. Aquaculture Research, 40(8): 895-903.

BARROWS, F.T.; GIBSON GAYLORD, T.; SEALEY, W.M.; HAAS, M.J.; STROUP, R.L. 2008 Processing soybean meal for biodiesel production; effect of a new processing method on growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 283(1-4): 141-147.

BERGAMIN, G.T.; VEIVERBERG, C.A.; SILVA, L.P.; PRETTO, A.; SIQUEIRA, L.V.; NETO, J.R. 2013 Extração de antinutrientes e aumento da qualidade nutricional dos farelos de girassol,canola e soja para alimentação de peixes. Ciência Rural, 43(10): 1878-1884.

BOONYARATPALIN, M.; SURANEIRANAT, P.; TUNPIBAL, T. 1998 Replacement of fish meal with various types of soybean products in diets for the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. Aquaculture,
161(1): 67-78.

BOYD, C.E. Water quality in pond for aquaculture. Srimp Mart, Songkhla, Thailand, 1996 451p.

BUREAU, D.P.; HARRIS, A.M.; CHO, C.Y. 1998 The effects of purified alcohol extracts from soy
products on feed intake and growth of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow
trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 161(1): 27-43.

CASTELL, A.G.; CLIPLEF, R.L. 1988 Performance and carcass response to dietary inclusion of raw
soybean (cv. Maple amber) by boars feed ad libitum from 30 to 95 kg live weight. Canadian Journal Animal Science, 68(1): 275-282.

CARVALHO, M.R.B.; STECH, M.R.; CARNEIRO, D.J. 1997 Utilização de diferentes cultivares
de soja crua na alimentação de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus): avaliação do desempenho de
produção e do metabolismo dos peixes. Boletim Instituto de Pesca, 24(especial): 147-156.

CHENG, Z.J; HARDY, R.W. 2003 Effects of extrusion and expelling processing, and microbial phytase supplementation on apparent digestibily coeficients of nutrients in full-fat soybeans
for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 218(1-4): 501-514.

DANWITZ, A.; BUSSEL, C.G.J.; KLATT, S.F.; SCHULZ, C. 2016 Dietary phytase supplementation in rapeseed protein based diets influences growth performance, digestibility and nutrient utilisation in turbot (Psetta maxima L.). Aquaculture, 450(1): 405-411.

EGOUNLETY, M.; AWORH, O. 2003 Effect of soaking, dehulling, cooking and fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and tannins of soybean (Glycine max Merr.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and groundbean (Macrotyloma
geocarpa Ha). Journal of Food Engineering, 56(2-3): 249–254.

EL-SAYED, A.; NMARTÍNEZ, I.; MOYANO, F. 2000 Assessment of the effect of plant inhibitors on
digestive proteases of nile tilapia using in vitro assays. Aquaculture International, 8(1): 403–415.

FELDMAN, B.F.; ZINKL, J.G.; JAIN, N.C. 2000 Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 5th. edition.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 1376p.

FRANCIS, G.; MAKKAR, H.P.S.; BECKE, K. 2001 Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived
alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish: review. Aquaculture, 199(3-4): 197-227.

FURUYA, W.M.; PEZZATO, L.E.; BARROS, M.M.; PEZZATO, A.C.; FURUYA, V.R.B.; MIRANDA, E.C. 2004a Use of ideal protein concept for precision formulation of amino acid levels in fish-meal-free diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture Research, 35(12): 1110–1116.

AURESCO, S.A. 2004b Farelo de soja integral em rações para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo
(Oreochromis niloticus). Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 26(2): 203–207.

GONÇALVES-DE-FREITAS, E.; TERESA, F.B.; GOMES, F.S.; GIAQUINTO, P.C. 2008 Effect of water renewal on dominance hierarchy of juvenile Nile tilapia. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 112(1-2): 187-195.

GONÇALVES, G.S.; PEZZATO, L.E.; BARROS, M.M.; ROCHA, D.F.; KLEEMAN, G.K.; ROSA,M.J.S. 2009 Energia e nutrientes digestíveis de alimentos para a tilápia do nilo. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 35(2): 201–213.

GUIMARÃES, I.G.; PEZZATO, L.E.; BARROS, M.M. 2008 Amino acid availability and protein
digestibility of several protein sources for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture
Nutrition, 14(5): 396-404.

HERTRAMPF, J.W.; PIEDAD-PASCUAL, F. 2003 Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds.

IWASHITA, Y.; YAMAMOTO, T.; FURUITA, H.; SUGITA, T.; SUZUKI, N. 2008 Influence of certain soybean antinutritional factors supplemented to a casein-based semipurified diet on intestinal and liver morphology in fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries Science, 74(5): 1075–1082.

JOHNSON, R.A.; WICHERN, D.W. 2002 Applied multivariate statistical analyses. 5th edition New
Jersey, Prentice-Hall. 767p.

KAKADE, M.L.; SIMONS, N.; LIENER, I.E. 1969 An evaluation of natural vx. Synthetic substrates for measuring the antitryptic activy of soybean samples. Cereal Chemistry, 46(1): 518-526.

KROGDAHL, A.; PENN, M.; THORSEN, J.; REFSTIE, S.; BAKKE, A.M. 2010 Important antinutrients in plant feedstuffs for aquaculture: an update on recent findings regarding responses in salmonids. Aquaculture Research, 41(3): 333–344.

LIN, S.; LUO, L. 2011 Effects of different levels of soybean meal inclusion in replacement for fish meal on growth, digestive enzymes and transaminase activities in practical diets for juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus×O. aureus. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 168(1-2):80–87.

LIS, H.; SHARON, N. 1973 The biochemistry of plant lectins (phytohemagglutinins). Annual Review of Biochemistry, 42(1): 541-574.

MEDEIROS, A.P.T.; CHELLAPPA, S.; CACHO, M.S.R.F.; YAMAMOTO, M.E. 2005 Encontros agonísticos e territorialidade entre machos de híbrido vermelho de tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) X Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) e de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoociência, 7(2): 273-284.

MORRIS, P.C.; GALLIMORE, P.; HANDLEY, J.; HIDE, G.; HAUGHTON, P.; BLACK, A. 2005 Full-fat soya for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in freshwater: Effects on performance, composition and flesh fatty acid profile in absence of hind-gut enteritis. Aquaculture, 248(1):147–161.

NCHA, O.S.; MICHAEL, P.B.; NNABUCHI, U.O.; ALEX E. 2015 Effect of diets with moringa leaf meal on growth, carcass composition and haematology of Clarias gariepinus. Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 3(2): 397-401.

NRC (National Research Council) 1993 Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C. 124p.

OLSEN, R.E.; HANSEN, A,C.; ROSENLUND, G.; HEMRE, G.I.; MAYHEW, T.M.; KNUDSEN, D.L.; EROLDOGAN, O.T.; MYKLEBUST, R.; KARLSEN. O. 2007 Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) II — Health aspects. Aquaculture, 272(1-4): 612-624.

PERES, H.; LIM, C.; KLESIUS, P.H. 2003 Nutritional value of heat-treated soybean meal for channel
catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture, 225(1-4): 67-82.

RANZANI-PAIVA, M.J.T.; SILVA-SOUZA, A.T. 2004 Hematologia de Peixes Brasileiros. In: RANZANIPAIVA, M.J.T.; TAKEMOTO, R.M.; LIZAMA, M.A.P. Sanidade de Organismos Aquáticos. Varela Publishing, São Paulo, SP. p. 89-120.

SAS Institute Inc. 2004 SAS User´s guide statistics. 5th edition. Cary, NC. 120p.

STECH, M.R.; CARNEIRO, D.J.; CARVALHO, M.R.B. 2010 Fatores antinutricionais e coeficientes de
digestibilidade aparente da proteína de produtos de soja para o pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).
Acta Scientiarum: Animal Sciences, 32(3): 255-262.

THOMAS J.S. 2000 Overview of plasma proteins. In: FELSMAN, B.F.; ZINKL, J.G.; JAIN, N. C. Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 5th edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. p.891-898.

URÁN, P.A.; TAVERNE-THIELE, J.J.; SCHRAMA, J.W.; VERRETH, J.A.J.; ROMBOUT, J.H.W.M. 2008 Soybean meal induces intestinal inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 25(6): 751–760.

VASCONCELOS, I.M.; MAIO, A.A.B.; SIEBRA, E.A.; OLIVEIRA, J.T.A.; CARVALHO, A.F.F.U.; MELO, V.M.M.; CARLINI, C.R.; CASTELAR, L.I.M. 2001 Nutritional study of two Brazilian soybean (Glycine max) cultivars differing in the contents of antinutritional and toxic proteins. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 12(1): 55–62.

Utilização de xilanase em dietas compostas por milho e farelo de soja de poedeiras comerciais
em postura. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40(2): 385-390.

WEE, K.L.; SHU, S.W. 1989 The nutritive value of boiled full-fat soybean in pelleted feed for Nile
tilapia. Aquaculture, 81(3-4): 303-314.

WEISS, D.J.; WARDROP, K.J. 2010 Schalm’s veterinary hematology , 6th edition. Blackwell Publishing,Iowa, USA, 1232p.

ZAR, J.H. 1999 Biostatistical analysis. Englewood cliifp, Prentice-Hall 663p
How to Cite
MARTINS, Graciela Pessoa et al. Antinutritional factors of raw soybean on growth and haematological responses of nile tilapia. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, [S.l.], v. 43, n. 3, p. 322-333, sep. 2017. ISSN 1678-2305. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 may 2022. doi: