Parasites community in Chaetobranchus flavescens Heckel, 1840, (Cichliformes: Cichlidae) from the eastern Amazon, Brazil

  • Marcos TAVARES-DIAS Embrapa Amapá / Universidade Federal do Amapá – UNIFAP, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia – PPGBIONORTE
  • Raissa Alves GONÇALVES Embrapa Amapá
  • Marcos Sidney Brito OLIVEIRA Embrapa Amapá
  • Ligia Rigôr NEVES Universidade Federal do Amapá – UNIFAP, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia – PPGBIONORTE


 The aim of this study was to investigate the component communities of parasites in Chaetobranchus flavescens from a tributary of the Amazon River system, northern Brazil. Out of 39 fish examined, 1,124,710 parasites were collected, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare (Protozoa), Gussevia spilocirra, Gussevia elephus (Monogenea), metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum and Posthodiplostomum sp. (Digenea), Pseudoproleptus sp. larvae. (Nematoda), Echinorhynchus paranensis, Gorytocephalus spectabilis (Acanthocephala), Braga patagônica (Isopoda) and leeches Glossiphonidae (Hirudinea). However, I. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant species, while B. patagonica and Hirudinea gen. sp. were the least prevalent and abundant parasites. These parasites had an aggregate dispersion, with mean richness of 4.7 ± 1.5 per fish, Brillouin diversity of 0.32 ± 0.29 and evenness of 0.15 ± 0.13. No correlation between the length and the parasite species richness and the Brillouin diversity was found, as well as regarding host size and abundance of parasites. Body condition of the hosts was not affected by the moderate parasitism. The low diversity of endoparasites indicates that C. flavescens is a host with low position in the food web. Finally, this was the first study on parasites of C. flavescens.


BOEGER, W.A.; VIANA, R.T. 2006 Monogenoidea. In: THATCHER, V.E.(Ed.). Amazon fish parasites. 2th ed. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers. p. 42-116.

BRAGA, M.P.; ARAÚJO, S.B.L.; BOEGER, W.A. 2014 Patterns of interaction between Neotropical freshwater fishes and their gill Monogenoidea (Platyhelminthes). Parasitology Research, 113(2): 481-490. PMid:24221891.

BUSH, A.O.; LAFFERTY, K.D.; LOTZ, J.M.; SHOSTAK, W. 1997 Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. The Journal of Parasitology, 83(4): 575-583. PMid:9267395. http://

COSTA-PEREIRA, R.; PAIVA, F.; TAVARES, L.E.R. 2014 Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the
Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Journal of Helminthology, 88(3): 272-277. PMid:23506711.

EIRAS, J.C.; TAKEMOTO, R.M.; PAVANELLI, G.C. 2006 Métodos de estudo e técnicas laboratoriais em parasitologia de peixes. Maringá: Eduem. 199 p.

FROESE, R.; PAULY, D. 2017 FishBase. [online] URL: .GAMA, C.S.; HALBOTH, D.A. 2004 Ictiofauna das ressacas das bacias do Igarapé da Fortaleza e do Rio Curiaú. In: TAKIYAMA, L.R.; SILVA, A.Q. (Ed). Diagnóstico das ressacas do estado do Amapá: bacias do
Igarapé da Fortaleza e Rio Curiaú, Macapá-AP. Macapá: CPAQ/IEPA e DGEO/SEMA. p. 23-52.

KARIMIAN, E.; GHORBANI, R.; HAJIMORADLOU, A. 2013 First occurrence and intensity of Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann,1832) (Digenea; Diplostomatidae) metacercariae in monkey goby (Neogobius pallasi berg, 1916) in the Zarringol Stream, Golestan Province, Iran. Global Veterinaria, 10(5): 505-510.

KLAAS, E.E. 1963 Ecology of the trematode, Clinostomum marginatum, and its hosts in eastern Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 66(3): 519-538.

KMENTOVÁ, N.; GELNAR, M.; KOBLMÜLLER, S.; VANHOVE, M.P.M. 2016 First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of Gnathochromis and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history? PeerJ,
4: e1629. PMid:26855869.

KOBLMÜLLER, S.; ALBERTSON, R.C.; GENNER, M.J.; SEFC, K.M.; TAKAHASHI, T. 2012 Cichlid evolution: lessons in diversification. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2012: 1. PMid:23024884.

KRITSKY, D.C.; THATCHER, V.E.; BOEGER, W.A. 1986 Neotropical Monogenea. 8. Revision of Urocleidoides (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of
Washington, 53(1): 1-37.

KULLANDER, S.O. 2003 Cichlidae (Cichlids). In: REIS, R.E.; KULLANDER, S.O.; FERRARIS JUNIOR, C.J. (Ed.). Checklist of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. p. 605-654.

LACERDA, A.C.F.; TAKEMOTO, R.M.; TAVARES-DIAS, M.; POULIN, R.; PAVANELLI, G.C. 2012 Comparative parasitism of the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus in native and invaded river basins. The Journal of Parasitology, 98(4): 713-717. PMid:22468610.

LE CREN, E.D. 1951 The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonadal weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). Journal of Animal Ecology, 20(2): 201-219. LUDWIG, J.A.; REYNOLDS, J.F. 1988 Statistical ecology: a primer on
methods and computing. New York: Wiley-Interscience. 337 p.

MAGURRAN, A.E. 2004 Measuring biological diversity. Oxford: Blackwell Science. 256 p.

MARCOGLIESE, D.J.; GENDRON, A.D.; PLANTE, C.; FOURNIER, M.; CYR, D. 2006 Parasites of spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius) in the St. Lawrence River: effects of municipal effluents and habitat.
Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84(10): 1461-1481.

MELO, M.F.; GIESE, E.G.; SANTOS, J.N.; PORTES-SANTOS, C. 2011 First record of Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) in fish host. Acta Tropica, 117(3): 212-215. PMid:21187054.

MORLEY, N.J. 2012 Cercariae (Platyhelmintes: Trematoda) as neglected components of zooplankton communities in freshwater habitats. Hydrobiologia, 691(1): 7-19.

NEVES, L.R.; PEREIRA, F.B.; TAVARES-DIAS, M.; LUQUE, J.L. 2013 Seasonal influence on the parasite fauna of a wild population of Astronotus ocellatus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from the Brazilian
Amazon. The Journal of Parasitology, 99(4): 718-721. PMid:23421456.

ONDRACKOVA, M.; JURAJDA, P.; GELNAR, M. 2002 The distribution of Posthodiplostomum cuticola metacercariae in young-of-the-year cyprinid fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 60(5): 1355-1357.

PINTO, H.A.; MATI, V.L.T.; MELO, A.L. 2013 New records and a checklist of trematodes from Butorides striata (Aves: Ardeidae). Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 84(4): 1100-1110.

POULIN, R. 1997 Species richness of parasite assemblages: evolution and atterns. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28(1): 341-358.

POULIN, R. 2004a Macroecological patterns of species richness in parasite assemblages. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5(5): 423-434.

POULIN, R. 2004b Parasite species richness in New Zealand fishes: a grossly underestimated component of biodiversity. Diversity & Distributions, 10(1): 31-37.

RITOSSA, L.; FLORES, V.R.; VIOZZI, G. 2013 Life cycle of a Posthodiplostomum species (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Patagonia, Argentina. The Journal of Parasitology, 99(5): 777-780. PMid:23628085.

ROHDE, K.; HAYWARD, C.; HEAP, M. 1995 Aspects of the ecology of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes. International Journal for Parasitology, 25(8): 945-970. PMid:8550295. http://dx.doi.

RÓZSA, L.; REICZIGEL, J.; MAJOROS, G. 2000 Quantifying parasites in samples of hosts. The Journal of Parasitology, 86(2): 228-232. PMid:10780537.[0228:QPISOH]2.0.CO;2.

SCHMIDT, G.D. 1985 Development and life cycles. In: CROMPTON, D.W.T.; NICKOL, B.B. (Ed.). Biology of the Acanthocephala. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 273-286.

SILVA, A.M.O.; TAVARES-DIAS, M.; JERÔNIMO, G.T.; MARTINS, M.L.2011 Parasite diversity in Oxydoras niger (Osteichthyes: Doradidae)from the basin of Solimões River, Amazonas state, Brazil, and the relationship between monogenoidean and condition factor. Brazilian
Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 71(3): 791-796. PMid:21881805.

SOARES, M.G.M.; COSTA, E.L.; SIQUEIRA-SOUZA, F.K.; ANJOS,H.D.B.; YAMAMOTO, K.C.; FREITAS, C.E.C. 2011 Peixes de lagos do médio Rio Solimões. 2a ed. Manaus: Instituto Piatam. 175 p.

TAVARES-DIAS, M.; NEVES, L.R.; PINHEIRO, D.A.; OLIVEIRA, M.S.B.; MARINHO, R.G.B. 2013 Parasites in Curimata cyprinoides (Characiformes: Curimatidae) from eastern Amazon, Brazil. Acta
Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, 35(4): 595-601.

TAVARES-DIAS, M.; OLIVEIRA, M.S.B.; GONÇALVES, R.A.; SILVA, L.M.2014 Ecology and seasonal variation of parasites in wild Aequidens tetramerus, a Cichlidae from the Amazon. Acta Parasitologica, 59(1): 158-164. PMid:24570063.

VANHOVE, M.P.M.; HABLÜTZEL, P.I.; PARISELLE, A.; ŠIMKOVÁ, A.; HUYSE, T.; RAEYMAEKERS, J.A.M. 2016 Cichlids: a host of opportunities for evolutionary parasitology. Trends in Parasitology,
32(10): 820-832. PMid:27595383.

ZAR, J.H. 2010 Biostatistical analysis. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 944 p.
How to Cite
TAVARES-DIAS, Marcos et al. Parasites community in Chaetobranchus flavescens Heckel, 1840, (Cichliformes: Cichlidae) from the eastern Amazon, Brazil. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, [S.l.], v. 44, n. 1, p. 10-16, dec. 2018. ISSN 1678-2305. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 may 2022. doi: