Essential oil of Aloysia triphylla is effective in Nile tilapia transport

  • Rafael Rivas TEIXEIRA Universidade Federal da Bahia – UFBA, Programa de Pós-graduação em Zootecnia
  • Renilde Cordeiro de SOUZA Universidade Federal da Bahia – UFBA, Programa de Pós-graduação em Zootecnia
  • Artur Cedraz SENA Universidade Federal da Bahia – UFBA, Programa de Pós-graduação em Diversidade Animal
  • Bernardo BALDISSEROTTO Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia
  • Berta Maria HEINZMANN Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM, Departamento de Farmácia Industrial,
  • Carlos Eduardo COPATTI Universidade Federal da Bahia – UFBA, Programa de Pós-graduação em Zootecnia / Universidade Federal da Bahia – UFBA, Programa de Pós-graduação em Diversidade Animal


The study evaluated the use of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) as stress reducer in transporting Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Juveniles were transported for 8 h in plastic bags by car with water containing 0 (control), 20 or 30 μL L-1 EOAT (three replicates). We evaluated water quality, net ion fluxes (Cl, Na+ and K+) and plasma parameters (cortisol, glucose, lactate and paraoxonase) and ventilatory rate (VR) of Nile tilapia. There was no mortality in juveniles undergoing transport. Nile tilapia transported with 20 or 30 μL L-1 EOAT presented lower pH than control group and with 30 μL L-1 EOAT presented lower water conductivity, alkalinity and Cl, Na+ and K+ net ion fluxes compared to other treatments. The EOAT did not alter plasma cortisol and paraoxonase levels, but reduced VR, and 30 μL L-1 EOAT reduced plasma glucose levels compared to the control group after transport. The use of 20 μL L-1 EOAT increased plasma lactate levels compared to other treatments. The use of 30 μL L-1 EOAT for sedation in 8 h transport of Nile tilapia is recommended because it improved water quality and reduced ionic losses, plasma glucose levels and VR.


BALDISSEROTTO, B.; COPATTI, C.E.; GOMES, L.C.; CHAGAS, E.C.; BRINN, R.P.; ROUBACH, R. 2008 Net ion fluxes in the facultative airbreather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoata) and the obligate air-breather Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) exposed to different Amazonian waters. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 34(4): 405-412. PMid:18958598.

BARAS, E.; PRIGNON, C.; GOHOUNGO, G.; MEALARD, C. 2000 Phenotypic sex differentiation of blue tilapia under constant an fluctuating thermal regims and its adaptive and evolutionary implications. Journal of Fish Biology, 57(1): 210-223.

BARRETO, R.E.; VOLPATO, G.L. 2004 Caution for using ventilatory frequency as an indicator of stress in fish. Behavioural Processes, 66(1): 43-51. PMid:15062970.

BARTON, B.A.; IWAMA, G.K. 1991 Physiological changes in fish from stress in aquaculture with emphasis on the response and effects of corticosteroids. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 1(1): 3-26.

BECKER, A.G.; PARODI, T.V.; HELDWEIN, C.G.; ZEPPENFELD, C.; HEINZMANN, B.M.; ALDISSEROTTO, B. 2012 Transportation of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, in water with eugenol and the essential oil of Lippia alba. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 38(3): 789-796.PMid:21972065.

BENLI, A.C.K.; KÖKSAL, G. 2005 The acute toxicity of ammonia on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) larvae and fingerlings. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29(2): 339-344.

BOLASINA, S.N. 2006 Cortisol and hematological response in Brazilian codling, Urophycis brasiliensis (Pisces, Phycidae) subjected to anesthetic treatment. Aquaculture International, 14(6): 569-575.

BOSISIO, F.; REZENDE, K.F.O.; BARBIERI, E. 2017 Alterations in the hematological parameters of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) submitted to different salinities. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 12(2): 146-154.

BOYD, C.E.; TUCKER, C.S.; SOMRIDHIVEJ, B. 1992 Alkalinity and hardness: critical but elusive concepts in aquaculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 47(1): 6-41.

COLT, J. 2002 List of spreadsheets prepared as a complement. In: WEDEMEYER, G.A. (Ed.). Fish hatchery management. 2nd ed. Washington: Amer Fish Soc Pub. Available from: . Accesses on: 26 june 2017.

COLT, J.; MOMODA, T.; CHITWOOD, R.; FORNSHELL, G.; SCHRECK, C. 2011 Water quality in tilapia transport: from the farm to the retail store. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 73(4): 426-434.

COPATTI, C.E.; BOLNER, K.C.S.; ROSSO, F.L.; LORO, V.L.;BALDISSEROTTO, B. 2015 Tolerance of piava juveniles to different ammonia concentrations. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 36(6): 3991-4002.

EL-SAYED, A.F.M. 2002 Effects of stocking density and feeding levels on growth and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry. Aquaculture Research, 33(8): 621-626. http://dx.doi.

EL-SHERIF, M.S.; EL-FEKY, A.M.I. 2009 Performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. I. Effect of pH. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11(3): 297-300.

GLADDEN, L.B. 2000 Muscle as a consumer of lactate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(4): 764-771. PMid:10776895.

HOHLENWERGER, J.C.; BALDISSEROTTO, B.; COUTO, R.D.; HEINZMANN, B.M.; SILVA, D.T.; CARON, B.O.; SCHMIDT, D.; COPATTI, C.E. 2017 Essential oil of Lippia alba in the transport
of Nile tilapia. Ciência Rural, 47(3): e20160040.

HOHLENWERGER, J.C.; EDUARDO COPATTI, C.; CEDRAZ SENA, A.; DAVID COUTO, R.; BALDISSEROTTO, B.; HEINZMANN, B.M.; CARON, B.O.; SCHMIDT, D. 2016 Could the essential oil of Lippia alba provide a readily available and cost-effective anaesthetic for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)? Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 49(2): 119-126.

KARATAS, T.; KOCAMAN, E.M. 2014 Susceptibility to oxidative damage in wild and cultured brook trouts (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill, 1815). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 2(1): 180-183.

LIMMA-NETTO, J.D.; SENA, A.C.; COPATTI, C.E. 2016 Essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogon flexuosus in the sedation, anesthesia and recovery of tambacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus male xColossoma macropomum female). Boletim do Insituto de Pesca, 42(3):

OLIVEIRA, J.R.; CARMO, J.L.; OLIVEIRA, K.K.C.; SOARES, M.C.F. 2009 Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 38(7): 1163-1169. http://

PARODI, T.V.; CUNHA, M.A.; BECKER, A.G.; ZEPPENFELD, C.C.; MARTINS, D.I.; KOAKOSKI, G.; BARCELLOS, L.G.; HEINZMANN, B.M.; BALDISSEROTTO, B. 2014 Anesthetic activity of the essential
oil of Aloysia triphylla and effectiveness in reducing stress during transport of albino and gray strains of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 40(2): 323-334. PMid:23974669.

B.; BALDISSEROTTO, B. 2012 The anesthetic efficacy of eugenol and the essential oils of Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla in post-larvae and sub-adults of Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae).Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology &Pharmacology, 155(3): 462-468. PMid:22198554.

SENA, A.C.; TEIXEIRA, R.R.; FERREIRA, E.L.; HEINZMANN, B.M.; BALDISSEROTTO, B.; CARON, B.O.; SCHMIDT, D.; COUTO, R.D.; COPATTI, C.E. 2016 Essential oil from Lippia alba has anaesthetic
activity and is effective in reducing handling and transport stress in tambacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus x Colossoma macropomum).Aquaculture, 465(1): 374-379.

SENTI, M.; TOMAS, M.; FITO, M.; WEINBRENNER, T.; COVAS, M.I.;SALA, J.; MASIÁ, R.; MARRUGAT, J. 2003 Antioxidant paraoxonase 1 activity in the metabolic syndrome. The Journal of Clinical
Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88(11): 5422-5426. PMid:14602783.

SIMÕES, L.N.; LOMBARDI, D.C.; GOMIDE, A.T.M.; GOMES, L.C. 2011 Efficacy of clove oil as anesthetic in handling and transportation of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) juveniles. Zoologia, 28(3): 285-290.

SODERBERG, R.W. 2006 Culture in flowing water. In: LIM, C.E.; WEBSTER, C.D. (Eds.). Tilapia: biology, culture and nutrition. London: Food Products Press. p. 289-307.

TAKAHASHI, L.S.; ABREU, J.S.; BILLER, J.D.; URBINATI, E.C. 2006 Effect of post-transport environment on the stress indicators recovery of pacu juveniles, Piaractus mesopotamicus. Acta Scientiarum Animal Science, 28(4): 469-475.

TEIXEIRA, R.R.; SOUZA, R.C.; SENA, A.C.; BALDISSEROTTO, B.; HEINZMANN, B.M.; COUTO, R.D.; COPATTI, C.E. 2017 Essential oil of Aloysia triphylla in Nile tilapia: anaesthesia, stress parameters
and sensory evaluation of fillets. Aquaculture Research, 48(7): 3383-3392.

URBINATI, E.C.; ABREU, J.S.; CAMARGO, A.C.S.; PARRA, M.A.L. 2004 Loading and transport stress of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, Characidae) at various densities. Aquaculture, 229(1-4): 389-400.

WENDELAAR-BONGA, S.E.W. 1997 The stress response in fish. Physiological Reviews, 77(3): 591-625. PMid:9234959.

B. 2014 Physiological and biochemical responses of silver catfish,Rhamdia quelen, after transport in water with essential oil of Aloysiatriphylla (L’Herit) Britton. Aquaculture, 418-419(1): 101-107.
How to Cite
TEIXEIRA, Rafael Rivas et al. Essential oil of Aloysia triphylla is effective in Nile tilapia transport. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, [S.l.], v. 44, n. 1, p. 17-24, dec. 2018. ISSN 1678-2305. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 may 2022. doi: